The Universal income
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The Universal income
The idea of universal income dates back to the eighteenth Century. It is taken over by many scholars and very diverse streams of thought, from anarchists to ecologists through libertarians or ultraliberal. She is on the presidential program of the Socialist Party Candidate.
If the question goes beyond the Left-right cleavage, his supporters defend different visions. For the liberals, the goal of universal income is to rationalize the social welfare system, replacing all existing social benefits. In this version, originally developed by economist Milton Friedman, The basic income must remain low, voluntarily insufficient. Coupled with a abolition of the minimum wage and social benefits, it is destined to eliminate the great misery, but also to flexible the labour market and to reform a welfare state deemed Ineffective.
With regard to supporters of a “emancipatory” vision of universal income, There is no question of social protection being Questioned. The allowance is seen as a tool giving individuals the means to take care of themselves, and to encourage the development of non-commercial, associative, cultural and Civic Activities. It is this vision that is defended in particular by the French Movement for a basic income.
A third way more radical and thought as an alternative to capitalism: a lifetime salary. This idea is defended by the sociologist and economist Bernard Fox. The wealth would be shared in a dedicated fund, responsible for redistributing a salary to all citizens as early as 18 years according to their qualifications, based on the idea that any activity is creative of wealth.
The universal income is currently experienced in Alaska. The U.S. state has been returning oil and gas revenues to its residents for more than five years since 1982. In 2015, this income, named the Alaska Permanent Fund, amounted to more than 2 000 dollars per person per year (about 1 800 euros). This “dividend” citizen is debating, a part of the political class proposing to reduce its amount in order to fill the budget deficit of the state, linked to the decline in the price of the Barrel.
Brazil recorded the universal income in its Constitution in 2004. Between 2008 and 2014, an allowance, conditional on the schooling of children, was paid to the poorest families. This programme, entitled Bolsa Familia, has made it possible to improve the enrolment rate and to get out of poverty a very large number of HOUSEHOLDS. From 1 January 2017, Finland will also experiment to simplify its social assistance system: for two years, 2 000 unemployed persons from 25 to 58 years of age would receive 560 euros per month instead of the various benefits to which they had Right. In germany, sixteen random citizens receive an income of 1 000 euros for one year, financed via a crowdfunding platform. In a referendum held last june, almost 76% of the Swiss rejected a basic income project at EUR 2 000.
At the end of 2016 in France, the Gironde County Council announced that it had launched a simulation to define the conditions for experimenting with basic universal income.
however, the atavisms related to slavery and colonization do not represent a hindrance to the Project. France was sometimes the first and the second colonial power, the Nation did not hesitate to destroy kingdoms, sovereign countries and democracies to maintain its position and nourish its political and military power. The idea is progressive, emancipatory and Fraternal. however, Aimé Césaire warned: freedom, equality, fraternity, always advocate these values, but sooner or later you will see the problem of Identity. Where’s the fraternity? Why has it never been known? Precisely because France has never understood the problem of Identity. If you, you are a man with rights with all due respect, and I too am a man, I too have rights. Respect Me. At that time, we are brothers. Let’s Kiss. This is the Fraternity. “
The universal income remains to be built and defended, but how? On what criteria, towards which populations?
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